GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring copper complex that was first identified in human plasma. Copper peptides are small, naturally occurring protein fragments that have a high affinity for copper ions, which are critical to normal body function. The human peptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) has multiple biological actions, all of which, according to our current knowledge, appear to be health positive. It stimulates blood vessel and nerve outgrowth, increases collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis, as well as supports the function of dermal fibroblasts. GHK’s ability to improve tissue repair has been demonstrated for skin, lung connective tissue, boney tissue, liver, and stomach lining. Since its discovery in 1973, GHK-Cu established itself as a powerful protective and regenerative ingredient, which is currently widely used in skin and hair products. First, it seems to act as a potent protector of tissue and anti-inflammatory agent that controls the oxidative damage that occurs post-tissue injury. It then plays a significant role in signaling tissue remodeling which removes damaged/scarred tissue and generates new, healthy tissue. However, these positive effects decline with age because the concentration of GHK-Cu in the body decreases with age. Thus, there is an increase in inflammation, cancerous activity, and tissue destruction.
Glutathione is an antioxidant produced in cells. It’s comprised mostly of three amino acids: glutamine, glycine, and cysteine. Glutathione injections work by clearing the body of toxins and free radicals. When we are exposed to toxins, glutathione is used up faster than it can be produced. Glutathione levels in the body can be reduced by many factors, including poor nutrition, environmental toxins, and stress. Its levels also decline with age.
Melanotan II is a non-selective agonist of the melanocortin receptors which was originally developed as a tanning peptide. Hence the reason the peptide was marketed as the “Barbie” peptide with its binding ability to MCR1. Melanotan II is a synthetic cyclic lactam analog of naturally occurring α-MSH (melanocytestimulating hormone), a trimmed version of Melanotan I with a longer half-life. Melanocortins (MCs) are multifunctional peptide hormones that regulate a diversity of physiological functions. Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) has been shown to control skin coloration/pigmentation in humans. The pigment melanin is produced in melanosomes by melanocytes in a complex process called melanogenesis. Melanin is the principal determinant factor of skin, hair, and eye color. It has a significant role in photoprotection due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Melanocytes interact intrinsically with endocrine, immune, inflammatory, and central nervous systems. Its activity is regulated by extrinsic factors such as ultraviolet radiation and drugs. Melanotan II has the same mechanism as Melanotan I but does cross the blood-brain barrier. There are five melanocortin receptors MC1R – MC5R. These receptors have been identified to show specific tissue expression patterns and binding affinities for each of the melanocortin hormones. The central melanocortin system MC3R & MC4R receptors play a fundamental role in the control of feeding and body weight.